The Albiceleste will host Ecuador when the national side kicks off its South American World Cup qualifying campaign in March, without the suspended Lionel Messi.
The draw on Tuesday at CONMEBOL's headquarters put Bolivia in Argentina's path in the second round of qualifying. Messi will be eligible to play that match after his red card in the Copa América.
Brazil also received a comfortable launch, hosting Bolivia in the first round and visiting Peru in the second.
The biggest match of the first round will be between Uruguay and Chile.
South America's Superclásico will take place in the sixth round in October, when Brazil hosts Argentina. Their second World Cup qualifier will be in September 2021.
The dates and venues were still to be decided.
South America holds four direct spots to the Qatar World Cup in 2022. Each team plays home and away, a total of 18 matches.
The fifth-placed team in South America has a chance through a play-off against a team from another confederation.